Indian Wedding Traditioons, Rituals & Cultures
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Punjabi Rituals & Ceremonies
ROKA CEREMONY Formal approval and finalization of the alliance
SAAGAI RITUAL The “ring” ceremony (engagement)
CHUNNI CHADAI Dressing up and blessing the bride
HEENA CEREMONY Adorning traditional mehandi on the hands & feet of the bride & accompanying ladies of the family
KANGNA BANDHAI Tying of the symbolic bracelets on the couple's wrists
CHUDA CHADAI Bedecking the bride with bangles particularly presented to her by her maternal uncle
HALDI CEREMONY Covering the bride with tradional ubtan
SANGEET CEREMONY Musical celebration among the ladies of the families
GHODI SAJAI Beautifying the mare of the groom
SEHRA BANDHI Tying of the traditional headdress on the groom
AGWAANI Welcoming the baraat (groom’s procession)
MILNI CEREMONY Formal meeting of the relatives of both the families
JAIMALA Exchange of garlands between the groom & bride
VIVAH AAYOJAN Actual wedding rituals segmented in the following sequence
Kanyadaan Brides Parents give away the bride to the groom’s family
Havan Lighting the sacred fire (done by the pundit)
Pani Grahan Sanskar The groom formally vows to look after his wife
Shilarohan Using the rock as a symbol of permanence
Lajahom Sacrifice offered to the havan kund
Lavan Phere circumambulations around the havan kund
Saptapadi Seven steps around the sacred fire
Showering holy
water on the couple
Invoking blessings from deities
Hriday Sparshmantra Vows taken by the couple
Sindoor The groom applies sindoor on the bride
Dhruvnakshatra Viewing the Pole Star
Arundhati Nakshatra Invoking blessings from Arundhati and Vashisht
Ashirwaad Blessing the newly wedded couple
  
BIDAAI Formally giving away the Bride to the groom’s family
KANGNA KHOLNA Untying of the bracelets tied on the brides hands
MOOH DIKHAI Introducing the bride to her husband's relatives
Kashmiri Rituals & Ceremonies
GOTA CEREMONY Traditional ceremony of mixing thin flakes of pistachios, almonds and betel nuts, done by the elders
BADIA CEREMONY Formal acceptance & formalization of the alliance between both families
SHAGUN
CEREMONY
Pre-wedding celebration of the upcoming wedding
MEHENZERAAT Beautification of the bride including the henna ceremony
GEHNA CEREMONY The bride is bedecked with floral jewellery
DEVGUN Ritualistic baths for the bride and groom, symbolizing purity
SANZVARU Beautifying the bride, before the wedding
SEHRABANDHI Tying a traditional headdress on the groom
BARAAT Arrival of the groom’s procession
LAGAN The “wedding” ceremony
POSH PUJA Elders Blessing the couple with flowers
BIDAAI Giving away the bride to the Groom’s family
DAHI BHAAT Welcoming the bride in her husband’s home
GARASUN Bringing the bride to her paternal home for a brief period
Muslim Rituals & Ceremonies
MANGNI
The prospective couple exchange rings. The bride-to-be wears an outfit gifted to her by her future in-laws. A convenient date for nikaah is fixed after the mangni
MEHNDI CEREMONY
Adorning traditional mehandi on the hands & feet of the bride & accompanying ladies of the family , on the eve of the wedding ceremony or a couple of days before it.
UBTAN
CEREMONY
The female relatives of the girl anoint her with turmeric paste to bring out the glow in her complexion.
SANGEET
A festive pre-wedding celebration among the women of the families, involving singing traditional songs
WELCOMING THE BARAAT
Arrival of the groom at the wedding venue with the baraat. The groom shares a drink of sherbet with the bride's brother.
NIKAH
The actual “wedding” ceremony conducted by the “Maulvi”.
[In traditional Muslim communities, the men and women are seated separately. It is the duty of the 'Walis' (the respective fathers of the couple) to ensure that the rights of his child are protected.]
VERSES FROM QURAN Selected verses from the “Quran” are read by the maulvi.
THIJAB-E-QUBUL
Formal proposal & acceptance of the alliance between the couple.
[Usually, the boy's side proposes and the girl's side formally conveys her assent. The mutual consent of the bride and groom is of great importance for the marriage to be legal. Neither of them must be forced to enter in the marital contract.]
MEHER
Deciding the amount of gifts.
[It is on the day of the Nikaah that the elder members of the two families decide the amount of Mehar (nuptial gift]. The Mehar is a compulsory amount of money given by the groom's family to the bride]
NIKAAHNAMA
Registering the marriage contract
[The Nikaahnama contains a set of terms and conditions that must be respected by both the parties. It also gives the bride the right to divorce her husband. For the contract to be legal, it must be signed by the bridegroom, the bride, the Walis, and the Maulvi.]
BLESSING THE GROOM
The groom receives blessings from the older women and offers them his salaam (a respectful salutation). The guests pray for the newly-weds.
AARSIMASHAF
Lavish post wedding dinner
[Usually, the women and the men dine separately. After dinner, the newly-weds sit together for the first time. Their heads are covered by a dupatta while they read prayers under the direction of the maulvi. The Quran is placed between the couple and they are allowed to see each only through mirrors (aarsi)]
RUKSHAT Bidding a farewell to the bride.
WELCOMING THE
BRIDE
The groom's mother holds the Quran above the head of her new daughter-in-law as she enters her new home for the first time after the wedding. .
VALIMAH Lavish post-wedding celebration
Sindhi Rituals & Ceremonies
JANYA The ”thread” ceremony
KACCHI MISRI Formal approval & finalization of the alliance
PUCCI MISRI The ”ring” ceremony
MEHENDI The “henna” ceremony
NAVGRAHI PUJA Holy puja ceremony summoning harmony within the planets
SAGARI The groom's relatives bedeck the bride with floral jewellery
GARHI-BUKHI Sacred puja ceremony for the mothers of the bride and groom
VANWA The ”oil”ceremony
SHAADI Ceremony held on the morning of the wedding
VIVAH The rites of the actual wedding segmented in the following sequence
Kanyadaan Giving away the bride to the marital family
Havan Lighting the sacred fire
Pani Grahan Sanskar The groom vows to protect his wife in future
Shilarohan Using the rock as a symbol of permanence
Lajahom Sacrifice offered to the havan kund
Parikrama Circumambulations around the havan kund
Saptapadi Seven steps around the sacred fire
Showering holy
water on the couple
Invoking blessings from deities
Hriday Sparshmantra Vows taken by the couple
Sindoor The groom applies vermilion on the bride
Arundhati nakshatra Invoking blessings from arundhati and vashisht
Ashirwaad Elders blessing the newly wedded couple
     
SATAVARO Post-wedding celebrations
DATTAR The salt ceremony
Bengali Rituals & Ceremonies
ASHIRBAAD The “ring” ceremony
AL BUDDO
BHAAT
The bride's last meal in her parental home
GAI HALOOD Smearing the bride and groom with uptan
SHAKA PAULA The bride is bedecked with bangles
BOIJOTRI The “wedding” procession
POTTO BASTRA Welcoming the groom
VIVAH The ‘wedding’ ceremony segmented in to the following sequence
Shubh dhristi The bride and the groom exchange garlands
Kanyadaan Giving away the bride to the groom’s family
Hasta milap Tying of the marital knot
Saptapadi Seven steps around the havan kund
Sindoordaan The groom applies traditional sindoor on the bride
BASHAR GHAR The groom stay in the bride's home
VIDAAI Giving away the bride to the groom’s family
BRIDE'S RECEPTION Welcoming the bride in her husband’s home
BAHU BHAAT Formal acceptance of the bride by her inlaws
RECEPTION Post wedding celebrations
PHOOL SAJJAYA The bride is bedecked with jewellery made from flowers
Gujrati Rituals & Ceremonies
GOL DHANA Formal approval of the alliance
GANESH STHPAN Commencement of marriage
GARBA Gujrati dance to traditional folk songs
PITHI Bedecking the bride with jewellery
GRIHA SHANTI Creating a canopy for the wedding rites
LAGNA The actual wedding ceremony sequenced in the following rites:
   
Varghodo Groom's procession
Varmala The couple exchanges garlands
Mangalastak Verses glorifying Lord Ganesha
Kanyadaan Giving away the bride
Hasthamilap Tying of the marital knot
Pheras Seven steps around the sacred fire
Vidai Bridal send off
RECEPTION Celebrating the wedding
Parsee Rituals & Ceremonies
RUPIA PERAVANU Final approval & finalization of the alliance
ADRAVANU The “Ring” ceremony
MANDAV-SARO Planting a mango sapling
ADERNI Bride’s father formally hands over gifts to the groom's family
NAHN Customary bath symbolizing purity
VIVAH Actual ‘wedding’ ceremony commenced by tying the marital knot :
   
HATHEVARO Hand fastening between the groom & bride
ASHIRWAAD Blessing the newly wedded couple
VAROVA Rituals followed after completing eight days of the wedding
Tamil Rituals & Ceremonies
NICHAYA DARTHAM The ‘ring’ ceremony
MATTRU KATTUTHAL Making a protective cover for the marriage platform
KOLAM Decorating the homes with rice flour paste
TAALI The bride's parents hand over the 'taali' to the groom
MINJI The groom's maternal uncle bedecks his nephew's feet with toerings
POORAM KAZHITHAL Ritualistic Bath symbolizing purity
   
THUMBU PIDITHAL Summoning the blessings of deities through 'kolam' decorations
POOVAI ARITHAL The groom arrives at the bride's home
BHAGAVANAM Tying of the 'kappus'
ARIMNA IDUTHAL Showering grains on the couple, symbolizing luck
SAPTAPATHY Seven steps around the havan kund
ISAIVU PIDIMANAM The marriage agreement is signed
THIRUPOOTU CEREMONY Welcoming the bride in her marital home
KALYANA VEVU The bride's matenal uncle presents her with gifts
KULAM VAZHUM PILLAI Handing over of household responsibilities to the bride
THUMBU KATTUDAL Tying of the matrimonial thread on the bride
KAICHI UTRRUDAL A traditional feast
 
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